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History of Iran - Documentary

 History of Iran - Documentary
History of Iran - Documentary

Iran is a country located in Western Asia parting its borders with the countries named Afghanistan, Turkey, Pakistan, Armenia, Iraq, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan

Iran is an Islamic republic country with a population of around 80 million people and is listed under the 18 largest countries of the world.

The capital of the country is Tehran and the common groups residing there include Kurds, Lurs, Mazandaranis, Gilaks, Azerbaijanis, and much more. Although about 90% of the population in Iran belongs to the Muslim community, the remaining 10% population contributes to the religion of Christianity, Zoroastrianism, and Jews. The Shia Muslims are mainly found in the Country but Sunni’s are also residing in the same.

The name of Iran

During the historical period, Iran was popularly called Persia (a small region of Iran) by the people living outside the country and the people residing in the country termed it Iran. In the use of Government papers and dealing with the other countries, the name Persia was commonly used and hence was considered as the official name of the country. In 1934, a military officer of Iran requested the other countries and Non-Iranians to call the country by its original name i.e., Iran. His main motive behind the same was to clarify the fact that Iran was the country of Persians as well as the non-Persians. The country was named Iran and was often considered as the place of Aryans (means noble people in Iranian language). The term Aryan was used in several regions including Europe. They call the Indo-Europeans Aryan. Moreover, the term was also used by Hitler to define his superiority and perfection.

After World War 2

The Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi was the king of Iran and ruled the country for a period of 1 year and after that, the prime minister named Mosaddegh became the famous ruler of Iran. However, his existence does not last for a long time and got eliminated from the country. Mosaddegh tried to conquer the entire oil industry of Iran after getting leadership. Since Great Britain was highly dependent on Iran for the oil supply, the country did not like the opinion of Mosaddegh. Great Britain put all the possible efforts to snatch the powers of Prime Minister Mosaddegh. However, their attempt failed. Great Britain then persuaded the United States against the harmful signs of Mossadegh leadership. After certain wars and hindrances, the United States and Great Britain finally decided to allow Reza Pahlavi to rule the country again and ultimately the country was converted and renamed as the Islamic Republic Iran. Iran developed a positive relationship with the United States but the same connection got over when the United States suspected that the Iranians are planning against Israel and are supporting the countries that want to invade the same country. According to Iran, Israel does not deserve the status of a republic country and that was the major reason why Iran desired to fight against Israel.

Iran and Iraq war

After some time, Iran and Iraq collided with each other and the result was a war between the two countries. Iraq attacked Iran in 1980 and created a battle that sustained for eight years. However, several major and developed countries including the United States supported Iraq by providing the country with technological and military help.

The west against Iran

The western countries then claimed that Iran was secretly developing the nuclear weapons 

However, the claim did not hold water as Iran was the part of Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and according to the IAEI (International Atomic Energy Agency) reports, there was no evidence stating that the country was developing a nuclear weapon. In 2007, the CIA report clarified that Iran did not continue the production of a nuclear weapon from 2003 and is not capable of doing so for many years.

Prehistory of Iran

During the Iron Age, the Persian Empire took place in Iran and at the same time, the country faced and suffered the attacks of Greeks, Arabs, Turks, and Mongols still managed to reframe its identity and become a republic state. The prehistory of Iran involves several ages and periods that are:

Palaeolithic period

Neolithic period

Chalcolithic period

Bronze age

Early iron age

Median and Achaemenid Empire

Seleucid Empire

Parthian Empire

Sasanian Empire

Caliphate and Sultanate era

Palaeolithic period

During the Paleolithic period, the people of Iran were trained for the rock arts. This art includes pictographs, carving in rock, rock reliefs, and much more. The common tools used for designing the rocks were flint, metal, and thigh bones of dead prey. 100,000 years back the archaeologists observed the initial evidence of the rock art in the Kashafrud and Ganj par.

Neolithic to Chalcolithic

Around this period, the groups named Chogha Golan and Chogha Bonus became popular in western Iran. At the same time, the first clay vessel was produced in the regions of Ganj Dareh. Another modification is related to the south-western regions of Iran which got linked with Fertile Crescent (a village used for agricultural production and crops) and commenced growing crops in the agricultural fields. Archaeologists have discovered the wine jars of 7000 years ago and the destroyed products of the same era. During the Neolithic period, major changes took place in the Zayandeh river culture and Ganj Dareh.

Bronze Age

Bronze Age supported the most important change that occurred in the city named Susa. The archaeologists proved that the Susa is a very old region and were formed around 4396 BC. Although the country was earlier considered as part of Uruk, later on, it was well-known as the capital of Elam (a country formed in 4000 BC). In this era, various objects were discovered in the place named Jiroft. These objects include the engravings of animals, mythological figures, motifs made of chlorite, a green-coloured soft stone. Some objects were also prepared of copper, bronze, terracotta, and much more. In the same period, the Iranians learned writing and the cities of Iran were developed and became the organized cities.

Early Iron Age

The Assyrian Empire ruled Iran in this era. According to several historical records of Iran, the Iranian people started reaching the plateau of Iran and compelled the Elam to sacrifice that region and move to their own native place. The Elamites constructed their shelters in Elam but some of the Elamites joined the Iranian people in the plateau. The Medes, Persians, and Parthians were the most popular people that lived in the Iranian plateau. Hellenic conquest and Seleucid Empire (312 BC-248 BC) During 334 BC, the wars of Granicus, Gaugamela, and Issus held and resulted in the debacle of Persians by Alexander the Great. Alexander then ruled the country and his kingdom was known as Seleucid Empire. However, his Empire did not last for a long period and got concluded after his death in 281 BC.

 Parthian Empire (248 BC-224 AD) 

The Parthian Empire vanquished the Seleucid Empire and started ruling Persia. Parthia desired to conquer Rome by defeating the country in the battle of Carrhae. At that time, The Parthian had two Sabers including:

1. Heavy-armed cataphracts

2. Light-armed and largely mobile archers

This became the major hurdle for the Romanians as they were dependent on the foot soldiers which were less effective and not powerful than that of the Parthian cavalries. However, a similar tension held among the Parthians as they believed that they were not trained enough to use the siege warfare and thus both the Empires could not conquer any of the regions. The Parthian dynasty was concluded in 224 AD when the ruling king lost the battle and his powers.

Sasanian Empire (224 AD-651 AD)

Ardashir then governed the country for several years and modified it to a great extent. Under his leadership, Iran not only developed economically but also its military powers enhanced. The period of the Sasanian Empire was ended because of the continuous wars held between the Romans and Parthians.

The Islamic conquest of Persia (633-651)

In 633, Iran was ruled by the Sasanian king named Yazdegerd. The Muslims attacked Iran following the instructions of Umar and the battle resulted in a civil war killing thousands of people. Most of the Iranians including King Dinar and Kanarangiyans supported Umar and stood against the Sasanian Empire. At the same time, the Mihrans were following Yazdegerd but received a betrayal from their own group of people. The war continued until king Yazdegerd died and the country was taken over by the Muslim ruler. During this period, most of the Iranians converted their religion from Zoroastrianism to Islam and the Arabic language was considered the official language of Iran.

Economy of Iran
Economy of Iran

In the present era, Iran has become part of OPEC and exports oil to diverse countries. It also produces and exports various essential products that are rice, carpets, handicrafts, and crocus. Iran is considered the largest and the most efficient manufacturer of Caviar. The recent currency of Iran is Rial.

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