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The incident of Karbala

Shahadat Hussainؓ ​​- Causes and Consequences

The incident of Karbala
 After the reconciliation between Hazrat Hassan and Hazrat Muawiyah, Amir Muawiyah became the head of the Muslims, and held the position of Caliph of the Muslims for about twenty years. His reign lasted from 40 AH (40 AH) to 60 AH (60 AH).  Throughout this period, the state of law and order remained satisfactory, and the scope of Islamic conquests became wider. It can be said that this was the golden age of Islamic history after the Righteous Caliphate.

  Yazid's Crown Prince 

 Hazrat Muawiyah had appointed Hazrat Hassan as his successor.  It is said that one of the conditions for reconciliation between Hazrat Mu'awiyah and Hazrat Hassan was that after Hazrat Mu'awiyah, Hazrat Hassan would be the Caliph of the Muslims, but during this period the incident of martyrdom of Hazrat Hassan took place.

 When Hazrat Amir Muawiyah assumed the office of Khilafah, from here the matter was changed from Khilafah to Monarchy, and the process of Monarchy began in Islamic history.  Gathered under one flag, almost five years had been lost in the civil war, Kabar Sahaba had passed away from this world, there were only a few gentlemen among them, among them prominent personalities Abdullah Ibn Zubair, Abdullah Ibn Umar,  Abdullah Ibn Abbas and Abdul Rahman Ibn Abi Bakr (RA).

 Fifty years had passed since the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).  At the same time, non-Arab elements had entered the mood, and the conditions of the Muslim Ummah as a whole were not conducive to the Shura system, but in the Muslim mood, side by side with the victories, the love of the world was also suppressed.  Hazrat Mughirah bin Abi Shu'bah advised Hazrat Mu'awiyah to nominate his successors and also to take the oath of allegiance to his Crown Prince, so that the Muslims after him would not again fall prey to civil war in the election of the Caliph.  He also offered the name of Yazid.  Because the temperament and nature of the people of Syria and Benawamiya was not ready to accept anyone else, but in such a case there would be a strong possibility of civil war. This position of Amir Mu'awiyah has been described by Allama Ibn Khaldun as follows: 

What persuaded Amir Mu'awiyah to make his tribal son the crown prince instead of anyone else was only an excuse for him to agree with Yazid in the eyes of the Umayyads at that time.  At that time, the Banu Umayyads were not willing to accept anyone other than their companions, and the Banu Umayyads were the leaders of the Quraysh and the whole nation, they were the ones who had the upper hand  It was thought that he was more suitable and better for the Wilayah and Khilafah, and he deviated from the best and made the useless and inappropriate the Crown Prince, also with the idea that unity would remain, and the thoughts of the people would not be dispersed.  Yes, because unity is a very important thing for the Shariah.  (Case of Ibn Khaldun: 175-176)

 In the life of Hazrat Hassan, Hazrat Muawiyah refused to accept this opinion of Hazrat Mughira, because he had promised Hazrat Hassan to be the Crown Prince, but after the martyrdom of Hazrat Hassan, Hazrat Muawiyah agreed to this advice.  This was an ijtihad decision of Hazrat Muawiyah and this decision was not unnatural and unnatural due to patriarchal compassion and love. Besides, the moral and social evils of Yazid were not so obvious to Hazrat Muawiyah that other people were aware of  Flatterers and vested interests would have presented the other side to him. However, in 49 AH, he called for the general allegiance of Yazid, but this invitation was generally disliked by the Muslims, who strongly disagreed because it was against the Islamic spirit.  The decision was that the people were well aware of Yazid's hobbies and his travels and entertainment. Yazid himself took the opposition to the situation seriously, and at that time the matter of allegiance stopped.  (See details: beginning and end: 180/8)

 When the news of Yazid's coronation reached the people of Kufa, the police, in the form of a flattering Kufi delegation, approached Mu'awiyah and asked him that he did not see any capable and skilled politician like his son.  Yazid's allegiance was well publicized in Syria and Iraq, and it was rumored that Syria, Iraq, Kufa and Basra all agreed on Yazid's allegiance.

 At the beginning of 56 AH, Hazrat Mu'awiyah started taking the oath of allegiance for Yazid, and sent word of it to all the regions and then the majority of Muslims accepted this oath of allegiance, including several Companions.

The position of Hazrat Hussain

 On the other hand, there was a group which felt that this act was against the spirit of Islam.  Traditions will come to life. In addition, Yazid's moral evils and his immorality were exposed, and his undisclosed evils were exposed after the death of Amir Mu'awiyah and his rule.  Therefore, it was necessary to oppose it at that time.  (See: Muqaddama Ibn Khaldun: 18)

 Prominent among the opponents were Abdullah Ibn Zubair, Abdullah Ibn Umar, Abdullah Ibn Abbas, Abdul Rahman Ibn Abi Bakr and Sibt Rasool Hazrat Hussain bin Ali (RA), whose greatness and status were Muslim and worthy of imitation.

 The officials of Yazid's government gave importance to the denial of allegiance of Hazrat Hussain which was not given to the rest of the companions. They knew that Hazrat Hussain is of great importance and greatness in the hearts of the people.  that's why

 The whole focus of the members of the government was on you to swear allegiance, but in spite of their insistence and efforts, Hazrat Hussain did not accept bowing or softening, and remained steadfast in his position with full insight and determination.  However, when the pressure of the government began to increase, he left Madinah and took refuge in Mukarramah.

  Invitations from the people of Kufa

 There were differences between the people of Iraq and the people of Syria since the time of Hazrat Ali. The people of Iraq were sympathizers of Hazrat Ali and Kufa was their capital.  The differences were settled and reconciled, but the Iraqis and the Syrians kept the spark of mutual hatred burning in their hearts, which from time to time showed its effect, so when the people of Kufa heard that

 Hazrat Hussain has refused to swear allegiance to Yazid bin Muawiyah, so he sent letters to Hazrat Hussain in which he explained that he himself disliked Yazid, but he is also against Hazrat Muawiyah.  And he has always been a supporter of Hazrat Ali, and even today he wants to make the descendants of Hazrat Ali the caliph.  He acknowledged Hussein as his caliph, and strongly urged Hussein to come to Kufa to establish the Khilafah in the Islamic way.

 Examples of the letters written by the people of Kufa can be seen in the book of the Shiites: *

 In The Name of Allah, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful

 In the name of Hussain bin Ali, who is the Amir al-mu'minin on behalf of himself and his father Amir al-mu'minin, peace be upon him, peace be upon him!

 People are waiting for you, they have no opinion except you, O son of the Messenger of Allah, hurry up.  والسلام (کشف الغمہ: 32/2 _ الرشاد للمفید: 203)

 See another letter:

 "But then! The orchards are green, the fruits are ripe, just come to the strong army. Peace be upon you."

 Hazrat Hussain received the first letter on the 20th of Ramadan, but he did not open it, and did not pay any attention to it:

 * Then he did not touch Al-Hussein on this day * (Al-Akhbar Al-Tawwal by Allama Dinuri: 231)

 The number of letters received by the people of Kufa in the service of Hazrat Husain was more or less five hundred.  Hazrat Hussain was certainly impressed by the letters and delegations, but in view of the previous deeds of these Kufis, it was necessary to investigate the situation, so he sent his cousin Muslim ibn Aqeel to Kufa to review the situation.

 Muslim ibn Aqeel in Kufa

 On the advice of Hazrat Hussain, Muslim ibn Aqeel reached Kufa. The Kufis welcomed him warmly. He stayed at the house of Hani ibn 'Urwah.  Eighteen thousand Kufis took the oath of allegiance in a matter of days.  Hazrat Muslim became convinced that the people of Kufa were completely with Hazrat Hussain, but he sent a message to Hazrat Hussain asking him to come.  The situation here is satisfactory, according to a Shia historian, Hazrat Muslim wrote:

 You have a hundred thousand swords with you, do not delay (Al-Irshad al-Mufid: 220).

 Upon receiving this message, Hazrat Hussain started preparations for his departure for Kufa. Hazrat Nu'man bin Bashir was the governor of Kufa at that time. When he came to know that Hazrat Muslim bin Aqeel was taking allegiance against Yazid, he did not pay any attention to this matter and turned a blind eye.  Some Yazidi fugitives from Kufa conveyed the news to Yazid. Yazid took immediate action and deposed Hazrat Nu'man bin Bashir and appointed Obaidullah bin Ziad as the governor of Kufa.

 As soon as Ibn Ziyad reached Kufa, he sent his spies around. When he found out that Muslim ibn Aqeel had made Hani ibn 'Urwah's house his center, he arrested Hani ibn' Urwah and Muslim ibn Aqeel came to know about it.  So they formed an army of four thousand Kufis and laid siege to Ibn Ziyad's palace. The chiefs of Kufa were supporters of Ibn Ziyad.  They bribed the soldiers with wealth, intimidated them, resulting in women coming and taking their sons, men coming and taking their brothers and friends, and tribal chiefs and taking part in the insurgency.  Stopping the people, the whole army was dispersed, and with Ibn Aqeel there were only three hundred men left, then more and only thirty.  By the time of Maghrib prayers only ten children and then they all left and Hazrat Muslim was left alone, not a single person was left to accompany him in the whole of Kufa.

 Muslim ibn Aqeel became helpless in Kufa.  He was wandering in the streets of Kufa in a daze when he saw a woman standing outside a house. Muslim ibn Aqeel sought refuge with her. The woman was not aware of the situation.  Mercy came, sheltered him in her house, she gave him bread to eat, at the same time her son reached home, he was well aware of the situation, when he found out that it was Ibn Aqeel, he informed him, and  Seventy soldiers of the army surrounded the whole house. When Muslim found out about this, they brandished their swords and went out to meet him. It was not easy for seventy men to fight alone.  They climbed on the roof of the house and started throwing stones and then set the house on fire. They started suffocating. Finally, the owner of this house, Abdul Rahman, gave you shelter.

 But he wanted to hand you over to the enemies, you still kept trying to fight, Muhammad Ibn Ash'ath shouted, "I give you peace, do not kill yourself."  They will not kill you, nor will they harm you.  So Ibn Aqeel's captured sword was snatched away, and he was put on a mule and presented to Ibn Ziyad.  There were tears in Muslim bin Aqeel's eyes at that time and he was sure that he would now be martyred.  He said to Ibn Ash'ath: I do not weep for my life, but I weep for Hussain and the family of Hussain who will soon come to Kufa on my writing, and I know how to deal with them here.  Yes, you gave me the order, and I know that it is not in your power to maintain this order of yours, and these people will surely kill me, so now accept at least one of my words to Hussain.  Send me a report of my condition, and let me go back, do not be deceived by the letters of the people of Kufa, these are the same people with whom your father was also troubled.

 Muslim ibn Aqeel was presented in the palace of Ibn Ziyad. Ibn Ziyad ordered him to be killed. He was placed on the top of the palace.  In the meantime, a man named Bakir bin Imran hit him on the neck, threw his head down from Qasr, and then lowered his body as well.

 Hazrat Muslim Ibn Aqeel was martyred on 9th Dhul-Hijjah, and on 8th Dhul-Hijjah Hazrat Hussain left Makkah

  Commitment of Hazrat Hussain's departure

 Kufa was no ordinary city, it was located in a very sensitive place, the largest cantonment of the Islamic State, which was established during the caliphate of Hazrat Omar, from here the highway leading to Iran and Syria was also controlled.  Therefore, Hussein was of the opinion that if the great majority of Kufa was ready to support him, as their letters show, then the Islamic system could be reformed and the change that could take place.  Attempts are being made to rectify this, and this decision was necessary to prevent the Muhammadan religion from these innovations. In addition, satisfactory reports had been received from his confidant, Hazrat Muslim ibn Aqeel, forty thousand Kufis.  Had also pledged allegiance, so apparently there was no good reason not to go to Kufa.

 Therefore, after receiving the reply from Hazrat Muslim, Hazrat Hussain decided to leave without hesitation, and left for Kufa with his family.  Many of the Companions also wanted to stop Hazrat Hussain, because no one believed in the promises and pledges of the people of Kufa. The names of the Companions who tried to stop him are: Abdullah Ibn Umar, Abdullah Ibn Abbas,  Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas, Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri, Abdullah ibn Zubayr, and his brother Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (may Allah be pleased with them all)

 But Hazrat Hussain was determined to travel and he was sure that the people of Kufa would be loyal to him, and then Hazrat Muslim ibn Aqeel also invited him to come.  In addition, you were ready to face the dangers for the lofty and great goals that were in front of you. On the way, I met the famous Umayyad poet Farzadak.

 The hearts of the people are with you and the swords are with you. ”(Tabari: 218/1)

 Hazrat Hussain was on his way to Kufa unaware of the fate of Muslim ibn Aqeel.  On the way, Muhammad ibn Ash'ath's messenger informed him of the martyrdom of Muslim ibn Aqeel, and advised him to return.  He was deeply shocked and saddened by this incident, and said: "Our Shiites have killed us

 Humiliated? ”(Summary of Suffering: 49) Then he consulted with the family of Hazrat Muslim. In the end, the opinion was that the strategy should be done after reaching Kufa.  Be ready to support you. Besides, it was necessary to take revenge on Muslim ibn Aqeel.

 In Karbala

 Hazrat Hussain continued his journey and reached Karbala. A few people from Kufa came to him in Karbala. He asked them what was the situation in Kufa.  In response, Majma 'bin Abdullah Al-Amiri said:

 "The elites and officials of Kufa have formed a group against you, because they have received huge bribes, and their demands have been met. They are all fighting against you, as long as the people  Hearts are with you, but their swords are against you. ”

 At the command of Ibn Ziyad, Umar ibn Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas came to him with an army of four thousand Kufis. He ordered him to go to Ibn Ziyad.  He said:

 "Leave me, go back as I have come, if you refuse, let me go to the Turks so that I may join the jihad there, and if he refuses, then take me to Yazid and I  Let me put my hand in yours, and then let him decide what he wants to do.

 Umar ibn Sa'd conveyed this message to Ibn Ziyad. He also wanted Husain to be sent to Yazid, but in such a case it was certain that the treachery of the people of Kufa and their deception would be exposed.  His love and devotion to Bait and his sons' Ali would have turned into a camphor, and it was possible that his betrayal would have led to indictment against him and ridicule of the entire Shiite nation, so it became necessary.  That Hazrat Hussain should be prevented from going to Yazid.

So the accursed Shamrazi Al-Jushan, who was very close to Ibn Ziyad, seduced Ibn Ziyad and said, "By God, this is impossible. Hussein should first refer himself to Ibn Ziyad."  Should they first refer themselves to me and then I will decide what to do with them.

 Ibn Ziyad said to Shamar, "If Umar ibn Sa'd is tolerant in complying with the order and is reluctant to arrest Hussein, then you are an army officer in his place."  So Shamar Dhi Al-Jushan took the place of Umar bin Sa'd and with an army of five thousand went out to fight against the better (72) sons of Hazrat Hussain.

 When Hazrat Hussain came to know that Ibn Ziyad had to make a decision in his case, it did not take long for him to understand his malicious and conspiratorial intentions and he refused to arrest him.

  Martyrdom of Hazrat Hussain 

 10 / On Friday, Muharram, Hazrat Hussain offered Fajr prayers. Among his companions were 32 riders and 40 infantry. Hazrat Hussain got on his horse and addressed the army and reminded them who they are  And there are sons, and what is their status and place!  He used to say that logo!  Beat your heart and ask your conscience, is it right to fight a person like me while I am the grandson of your Prophet?  (Beginning and Ending: 179/8)

 There were also Kofis in the army of Shamar al-Jushan who wrote letters to Hazrat Hussain and he was strongly invited to come to Kufa. When this army came forward, Hazrat Hussain recognized them and addressed these Kufis and said:

 The people of Kufa are in control of the situation.  Day of Resurrection (Record Date: 335)

 Woe to you, O people of Kufa!  Have you forgotten your letters and your promises, which you made to us, and you made God a witness over it?  You called the Ahl al-Bayt of your Prophet and promised that you would sacrifice your lives for them, and when they came to you relying on your promises, you handed them over to Ibn Ziyad, who  But the waters of the Euphrates have been cut off. You have treated the children of your prophet very badly.

 At the same time, Shamrazi Al-Jushan went ahead and started attacking the caravan of Hazrat Hussain (AS). A fierce battle took place.  "Keep saying, your comrades and family members were martyred in front of you, you were the only child but no one dared to face you, you kept walking in the field for a long time but no one came forward to compete," he said.  Finally, Shammar challenged the Kofi fighters: What is the wait for Hussein to finish his job now?  Go ahead and encircle them and attack them. They advanced from all sides. Hazrat Hussain fought against Sabit Qadi.  , And then dismounted from the horse and separated the head from the blessed body.  (The curse of Allah be upon them all)


   Testimony of Hazrat Hussain

 "God, if you keep them alive, divide them into pieces, divide them, never let the rulers be satisfied with them, they

 Called us to help.  But they came to enmity and sought to kill us. ”

 On another occasion, he cursed the Shiites and said:

 In order to swear allegiance to us, you break the hearts of locusts like lizards. You were showered like butterflies. Then you also broke your allegiance.  On these backward parts of these pieces of falsehood!  Those who turn their backs on the Book of Allah!  You are the ones who left us helpless. They killed us. Listen, God's curse is on the oppressors!  (Protest: 24/2)

 Testimony of Hazrat Zainul Abidin

 Hazrat Zain-ul-Abidin is an eyewitness of this tragic incident. He says:

 Do you not remember that you wrote letters to my father and called him to Kufa, but you betrayed him?  (2) When you say (2) you fought with my family, violated my sanctity, be expelled, you are not of my ummah. (Al-Ihtjaj 32/2)

 When Imam Zayn al-'Abidin came to Karbala with the women and they were ill, the women and men of Kufa were weeping. Imam Zayn al-'Abidin said in his weak voice: "These people are weeping though.  No one else killed us "(Al-Ihtjaj 158/2)

 Testimony of Hazrat Zainab

 Amir al-mu'minin says to the people of Kufa, the daughter of Hazrat Ali:

 O people of Kufa! O deceiver!  Treacherous and treacherous! Your example is like that of a carpenter who spun yarn with great effort but wasted her labor in a second. There is nothing but pride and arrogance, lies and cunning in you. Do you mourn for my brother?  Yes, mourn a lot, cry a lot, laughter is not in your destiny, your feet are stained, how long will you continue to consider the blood of the family of Prophethood cheap?

 Testimony of Hazrat Fatima Sughra 

 O people of Kufa! O traitors! O deceivers! O arrogant people!  Because of you, Allah has put us to the test of the Ahl al-Bayt, and has tested you through us.

 They denied us, and you justified fighting with us, you looted our property, and you killed our beloved grandfather yesterday.

 Our blood is still dripping from your swords.  Wait for the curse of Allah and for His chastisement which will come upon you.  Listen to what I have done to us!  God's curse on the oppressors!  O people of Kufa! Let your fleet sink! ”(Al-Ihtjaj: 28/2)

 Testimony of Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar *

 Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar says:

 The Iraqis ask me for a fatwa on killing flies, even though they are the ones who killed the son of the Prophet's daughter. (Bukhari: 3753)

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