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The history of Pakistan

 

The history of Pakistan
The history of Pakistan 

Hrough history the territory inside the borders of Pakistan witnessed large civilizations Wars development religions and reforms in this  blog  i will advance rapidly through some important events that existed here modern humans are thought to have arrived on Pakistan between seventy three thousand and fifty five thousand years ago settled life which farming in pastoral ISM started around 7000 BC people worked in agriculture and in domestication of animals like goats sheep or cattle by 4500 BC settled life had become more widespread and in time evolved into the Indus Valley Civilisation one of the earliest civilizations Indus Valley Civilisation as well as ancient Egypt or Mesopotamia was noted for developing new techniques and handicraft metallurgy development it's believed to be the first civilization to use wheeled transport in the form of Bullock carts and also used boats the route which traversed the Indus Valley linking the Central Asia the Indian subcontinent and the Orient have attracted people from far places in the beginning of the second millennium BC climate change with persistent droughts led to the abandonment of the urban centres of the Indus Valley Civilisation its population resettled in smaller villages and mixed with indo-aryan tribes who moved into other areas of Indian subcontinent in several waves of migration also driven by the effects of this climate change the vedic period 1500 to 500 BC as indo-aryans migrated and settled into the Indus Valley along with them came their distinctive religious traditions and practices which fused with local culture the initial early vedic culture was a tribal pastoral society centered in the Indus Valley of what is today Pakistan during this period the Vettes the oldest scriptures of Hinduism were composed the Vedic tribes remained in the Indus Valley by six century BC these tribes fought against one another and were vulnerable against possible Outsiders or invasions King Darius the first of the Achaemenid Empire took advantage of the opportunity and planned for an invasion the Indus Valley was a major of - for the Persian Empire and other earlier incursions and campaigns existed in the Indus River in 518 BC Darius led his army through the Khyber Pass eventually reaching the Arabian Sea coasts in sinned by 516 BC under Persian rule a system of centralized administration with a bureaucratic system was introduced into the Indus Valley for the first time provinces or satrapy were established with provincial capitals also there is no archaeological evidence of a K minute control over these regions as not a single archaeological site that can be positively identified with the Achaemenid Empire has been found anywhere in Pakistan we know about the easternmost satraps and the borderlands of via commanded empire is set in daria subscriptions and from greek sources in 328 BC Alexander the Great at that time King of Macedonia king of Persia and Pharaoh of Egypt had conquered much of the former satraps in the Achaemenid Empire up to Bactria when Alexander died in 323 BCE he left behind an expansive empire stretching from Greece to the Indus River the Empire was put under the authority of / takus and the territories were divided among Alexander's generals due to the internal conflicts of  Alexander's generals Chandragupta and his Brahmin councilor Chanakya saw an opportunity to expand the mauryan empire from its Ganges plain Heartland in Bihar towards the Indus Valley between 325 BCE to 303 BCE Mauryan Empire incorporated today's Pakistan and far beyond in today's Afghanistan it collapsed around 180 BC and the shunga Empire started to exist but not near the Indus Valley here in Alexander's campaigns many Greeks established in this part of the Empire creating communities and influencing the region with their culture the indo-greek kingdom expanded beyond the Hindu Kush their territories covered paunchy Ranke pissah in modern Afghanistan and extended to the Punjab region with many tributaries to the south and east the Greek and Indian languages culture traditions mixed creating a very interesting period for this land sokka's migrated from southern central asia into pakistan from the middle of the second century BC to the 1st century BC they replaced the Indo Greeks Indo Parthian and cushion empires ruled the lands here in the 1st centuries ad by the end of the 3rd century the sassanids Shan cha Shakur the first had incorporated the indo-iranian Borderlands into the Sassanid realm the Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian Empire existing approximately from 320 to 600 and covered much of northern South Asia including some parts of modern Pakistan having its border with the Sassanid Empire in the Indus Valley across Indus River this period is very important great accomplishments and great cultural developments took place during the reigns of important leaders as an example we can give the literary epics such as Mahabharata and Ramayana this structure collapsed due to internal and external factors like loss of territories invasions and instability the Indo heft the lights were a nomadic Confederation in Central Asia during the Late Antiquity period they were defeated by an alliance of Indian rulers Brahmin dynasty existed in the region of Sindh between 632 and around 724 in this territory here were many other small states in the next centuries another important period of this land is expansion of the Arab caliphs it's a large expansion happened in the 7th century after conquering the Middle East and the Sassanid Empire a Reb Forces had reached the Indus Valley Muhammad bin Qasim conquered most of the industry j'en for the Umayyad empire during the time of Arab caliphs it's a gradual conversion to Islam happened as the new religion spread more and more also Arabic and Persian languages spread and influenced the region ghaznavid empire and then guren empire ruled for centuries over the Indus Valley and beyond by doing so the new culture and religion was embraced by more and more people becoming dominant in time the Delhi Empire was a Sultanate based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of India ruling over the largest rivers here and also deep in India's territory this Sultanate was ruled by Five Dynasties men look call G tug loc Siyad and Lodi during and in the Delhi Sultanate the emergence of the Hindi Urdu language started to happen there was a synthesis of Indian civilization and that of Islamic civilization and the further integration of the Indian subcontinent with the growing world system and wider international networks spending large parts of afro-eurasia which had a significant impact on Indian culture and society mongols attacked the region between the 13th and 14th centuries timur invaded the punjab region and sacked cities at the end of the 14th century the first battle of Panipat was fought between the invading forces of Babur and the Lodi kingdom it took place in North India and marked the beginning of the Mughal Empire in the end of the Delhi Sultanate this was one of the earliest battles involving gunpowder firearms and field artillery in the Indian subcontinent which were induced by Mughals in this battle the early modern period started with the  Mughal Empire Mughal rule was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire the religion of Sikhism originated during this era in the punjab province of pakistan mughal rule was the time of economic development prosperity and peace for pakistan which remained nearly two centuries and also the golden age of the region there responsible for spreading our dual and built many masjid x' mausoleums madrasahs sand forts in pakistan the period was marked by economic activity excellence in painting and magnificent architecture the mughal dynasty greatly influenced the art architecture culture of today's Pakistan during the decline of Mughal in the late

18th and early 19th century

the other dynasties invaded and then controlled the region over these lands ruled the Durrani Empire the Marathas and the Sikh Empire most of the territory of modern Pakistan was occupied by the East India Company of the British Empire a series of conflicts followed in the region in which the British fought local rulers six and Afghans Pakistan became part of British rule later than other parts of South Asia and it stayed this way until the 

14th of August 1947 when Pakistan

gained independence the two provinces of British India Punjab and Bengal were divided along religious lines violence and conflicts existed between the Hindus six and Muslims and millions migrated to the new borders and some exchanges of populations the dispute over Kashmir escalated into the first war 
 led to Pakistan declaring itself an Islamic Republic with the adoption of a parliamentary democratic system of government another conflict with India
will happen that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 economic grievances and political
disenfranchisement in East Pakistan led to violent political tensions escalating into a civil war then another conflict with India Pakistan was defeated in the war and this led to the 
Bangladesh independence between 1971  to 1977

Zulfaqar  Ali Bhutto creates an Islamic socialist system in 7197 after a coup Zulfaqar  Ali Bhutto is executed the Islamic law is imposed political crises new elections and instabilities existed until this day also an important fact of the period of modern Pakistan is their population boom if in this region lived thirty five million when they achieved independence by 1990 here lived around  million and today more than 200 million people         

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