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THE HISTORY OF TURKEY

the history of Turkey from this title we can understand as the period between the formation of the Republic in the 29th of October 1923 and the present days or the period of ottoman and Turkic bailiwicks but we are going to refer to the entire period of known history of this land practically the history of the region now forming the territory of not only the Republic of Turkey but also Anatolia the earliest representations of culture in Anatolia were some Stone Age artifacts due to its strategic location at the intersection of Asia in Europe Anatolia has been an important place of several civilizations since prehistoric times at the start of the Bronze Age metallurgy spread to Anatolia from Transcaucasia cultures in the late 4th millennium BCE and it slowly entered in the sphere of influence of the Akkadian Empire many civilizations existed here speaking about one the Hittite civilization was a member of an ancient indo-european people who appeared in Anatolia at the beginning of the second millennium BCE by 1340 BCE they have become one of the dominant powers in the Middle East the remnants of Bronze Age civilizations such as the Haitian Akkadian Assyrian in Hittite peoples provide us with many examples of the daily lives of its citizens and their trade after the fall of the Hittites the new state of Phrygia and Lydia stood strong in the western coast as Greece civilization began to flourish they and all the rest of Anatolia were relatively soon incorporated into the Persian Empire more from the east a new power emerged Persia grew in power more and more and influenced the lands of the West expanding in Anatolia their system of local government in Anatolia allowed many cities and ports to grow and to be wealthy because of the influx of trade and road networks between the east and west the region of Anatolia got divided into various regions satraps ruled by satraps governor's appointed by the central Persian rulers in the earliest fifth century BC some of the Ionian cities under Persian rule revolted which culminated into the Ionian revolt this revolt after being easily suppressed by the Persians led to the popular Greco-persian Wars one of the most known and crucial Wars from the ancient history this crackle Persian war led to the more conflicts in Greek Peninsula fights for power and influence happened and a revenge sentiment mixed with good leadership led to the gross of Macedonian Kingdom under Philip ii and his son Alexander the great who gained control of the whole region and conquered Persia in successive battles from this point Anatolia was more and more influenced by the Hellenic world after Alexander's death his conquests were split among several of his trusted generals the Seleucid Empire the largest of Alexander's territories and which included in at olia became involved in Wars with Rome more years later the rise of Rome was felt across the Mediterranean Basin the control of Anatolia was strengthened by Rome allowing local control to govern effectively and provide military protection expanding deep into Anatolian territory the territory here developed in Roman times due to the rise of instability in the empire and the permanent raids from foreign invaders in the fourth century AD the emperor Constantine the great established a new administrative center at the city of Byzantium called Constantinople after his name and by the end of the 4th century the Roman Empire split into two parts  

the western part with Rome as its capital in the eastern part with Constantinople as its capital an empire referred to by historians as the Byzantine Empire the process of Hellenization that began with Alexander's conquests accelerated under Roman rule and the ancient Greek language and culture was predominant in the region Turkic peoples and related groups migrated west from Turkestan and what is now Mongolia towards Eastern Europe Iranian plateau and Anatolia the Seljuk Turks created a medieval Empire that controlled a vast area stretching from the Hindu Kusch to Eastern Anatolia and from Central Asia to the Persian Gulf many wars the emerging of new empires migrations raids and than competence of some leaders created the slow process of the Byzantine decline throughout time their decline and the growing power of the Seljuqs led to the conflicts and to the famous battle of men's occurred on 26th of August 1071 which is believed to be the open gate for the Turkic people which will come in an intaglio in the next decades and centuries this important battle was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Empire near man's occurred the defeat of the Byzantine Empire in the capture of their Emperor Romano's Diogenes the fourth is an important chapter in the history of Anatolia and in the history of what will be known as the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Turkey the sultanate of rûm seceded from the great Seljuq empire and they ruled central Anatolia as the Seljuk sultanate of rûm started to crumble many other smaller regions emerged ruled by different leaders these small kingdoms were called Bey licks one of them was ruled by Osman which will be known as Osman the first the founder of the Ottoman Empire it's believed that Osmond early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades but not all were Muslims it is not known for sure how this Balak started to dominate the region but one thing was sure the Byzantine Empire was very vulnerable the new Empire expanded into Europe defeating local leaders and taking profit from the instability of the region by the year 1400 the ottomans were a true power having control of much of the Balkans and Western Anatolia the collapse of Constantinople in the year of 1453 and the end of the last vestiges of the Roman Empire consolidated their power in their notoriety for the next centuries in which the Empire will expand even further reaching its peak in the 16th and 17th centuries inflation's lost battles the defeats against the Russians in the Hamburgs and some crisis and rebellions marked the decline of the Ottomans the start of the 19th century was marked by national movements many people from different ethnicities lived in different empires or administrative forms and rebellions started to happen

the Serbian Revolution 1804 to 1815 marked the beginning of an era of national awakening also even some Arabs led by the Al Saud family revolted against the Ottomans in 1821 the Greeks declared war on the Sultan achieving independence in 1830 the French invaded Algeria which was lost to the Empire in 1831 Muhammad Ali revolted and created a civil war with the aim of making himself Sultan as we can see the Ottoman experienced huge instability marked by defeats bad administration revolts and national movements across the Empire due to its over extensions on lands with different peoples and cultures the Empire continued in the next years of the 19th century to lose
THE HISTORY OF TURKEY
THE HISTORY OF TURKEY

 
the Turkish war of independence led by Mustafa Kemal by September 18th 1922 the occupying armies were expelled on November 1st the newly founded parliament formally abolished the Sultanate thus ending 623 years of Ottoman rule the Treaty of lizanne of July 24th 1923 led to the international cognition of the sovereignty of the newly formed Republic of Turkey as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire and the Republic was officially proclaimed on October 29th 1923 in the new capital of Ankara
 Mustafa Kemal became the Republic's first president of Turkey 
 and subsequently introduced many radical reforms more rights for women were established a new writing system in the Latin alphabet for the Turkish language was created and many others Turkey was neutral in world war ii and they refused German requests to allow troops access to its borders into Syria or the USSR due to the growing tensions of the Cold War the u.s. guaranteed the security of turkey and Greece turkey joined NATO in 1952 an important member especially due to its geographic position at the border with USSR on the island of Cyprus instability and conflicts started to exist and a military coup of July 1974 overthrowing President macaroni's and installing Nico Sampson as a dictator Turkey invaded the Cyprus in 1974 later the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus was established but just turkey recognizes
it the single party period was followed by multiparty democracy after 1945 the Turkish democracy was interrupted by internal problems and by military coos in 1960 1971 and 1980 since the liberalisation of the Turkish economy during the 1980s the country has enjoyed stronger economic growth and greater political stability also a boom in population happened in this country growing from 17 million people in the 1930s to over 80 million today 
we know that there's more to discuss about this topic and we will cover more details in future episodes about the history of the Turkish people in Anatolia so let us know your valuable feedback on how you like this blog of mine.

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